Friday, 8 June 2012

7th Note

Intellectual Property 


A patent is an exclusive right granted for an invention, which is a product or a process that provides a new way of doing something, or offers a new technical solution to a problem.

A utility innovation is an exclusive right granted for a "minor" invention which does not require to satisfy the test of inventiveness as required of a patent.

Any person may make an application for a patent or for a utility innovation either alone or jointly with another person. The word "person" is not limited to natural persons and thus also includes, for example, a company.

A patent is protected 20 years from the date of filing and a utility innovation is protected 10 + 5 + 5 years from the date of filing subject to use

A patent or utility innovation protection gives the owner of the patent/utility innovation the exclusive right to stop others from manufacturing, using and/or selling the owner's invention in Malaysia without the owner's consent or permission.


Copyright is the exclusive right given to the owner of a copyright for a specific period. Copyright protection in Malaysia is governed by the Copyright Act 1987. There is no system of registration for copyright in Malaysia.
A work that is eligible is protected automatically upon fulfillment of the following conditions:- 
  • sufficient effort has been expected to make the work original in character;
  • the work has been written down, recorded or reduced to a material form; 
  • the author is qualified person or the work is made in Malaysia or the workis first published in Malaysia

Works eligible for protection are;
  • literary works;
  • musical works;
  • artistic works;
  • films;
  • sound recordings;
  • broadcasts; and
  • derivative works
These works shall be protected irrespective of their quality and purpose for which they were created.
However, the copyright protection shall only extend to expression and not ideas, procedures, methods of operation or mathematical concepts as such.

Copyrights in a work vests initially in the author (writer, composer, maker of the work, etc). However, where the making of a work is made by an employee in the course of his employment, unless there is any contrary agreement, the copyright in the work shall be deemed to vest in the person who commissioned the work or the employer. The author's right is transferable by assignment, testamentary disposition or by operation of law, in which case the assignee shall be the owner.

Tuesday, 29 May 2012

HTML 5th Note

HTML = Hyper Text Multimedia languange

  • HTML is not a programming language, it is a markup language
  • A markup language is a set of markup tags
  • The purpose of the tags are to describe page content 
  • HTML Tags

    HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags
  • HTML tags are keywords (tag names) surrounded by angle brackets like <html>
  • HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b>
  • The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag
  • The end tag is written like the start tag, with a forward slash before the tag name
  • Start and end tags are also called opening tags and closing tags

HTML Elements

"HTML tags" and "HTML elements" are often used to describe the same thing.
But strictly speaking, an HTML element is everything between the start tag and the end tag, including the tags:
HTML Element:
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>

HTML Documents = Web Pages

  • HTML documents describe web pages
  • HTML documents contain HTML tags and plain text
  • HTML documents are also called web pages
1st level- head body and
2nd level-  Tittles, meta data, divisions, paragraphs, forms and heading
3rd level-  tables, rows, data cell

Sunday, 20 May 2012

6th Note


The physical topology of a network refers to the configuration of cables, computers, and other peripherals. Physical topology should not be confused with logical topology which is the method used to pass information between workstations. Logical topology was discussed in the Protocol chapter.

Types of Topology

  • Linear Bus
  • Star
  • Tree (Expanded Star) 

Linear Bus

A linear bus topology consists of a main run of cable with a terminator at each end

Advantages of a Linear Bus Topology
  • Easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear bus.
  • Requires less cable length than a star topology.
Disadvantages of a Linear Bus Topology
  • Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable.
  • Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable.
  • Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down.
  • Not meant to be used as a stand-alone solution in a large building. 


A star topology is designed with each node (file server, workstations, and peripherals) connected directly to a central network hub, switch, or concentrator 

Data on a star network passes through the hub, switch, or concentrator before continuing to its destination. The hub, switch, or concentrator manages and controls all functions of the network. It also acts as a repeater for the data flow. This configuration is common with twisted pair cable; however, it can also be used with coaxial cable or fiber optic cable.

Advantages of a Star Topology
  • Easy to install and wire.
  • No disruptions to the network when connecting or removing devices.
  • Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.
Disadvantages of a Star Topology
  • Requires more cable length than a linear topology.
  • If the hub, switch, or concentrator fails, nodes attached are disabled.
  • More expensive than linear bus topologies because of the cost of the hubs, etc.

 Tree or expended star

A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. It consists of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable . Tree topologies allow for the expansion of an existing network, and enable schools to configure a network to meet their needs.

Advantages of a Tree Topology
  • Point-to-point wiring for individual segments.
  • Supported by several hardware and software venders.
Disadvantages of a Tree Topology
  • Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used.
  • If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down.
  • More difficult to configure and wire than other topologies.

Tuesday, 1 May 2012

Social Apps!! 4th note

 Kyaa~ last week is the best telecom class evr. I've learnt a lot about intersting apps tht I never knew exist b4.. some of 'em are beneficial and all n some are just cute! 
Basically social software applications include communication tools and interactive tools. They are all over the web n have various kinds and usage/purpose. 

Lil' Mistress

Mr. Rabbit: 

so, little Mistress and her friends had a presentation for Social Applications and here's the two tht they presented..


Glog = Graphical blog. Simply put Glogster is a social network that allows users to create free interactive posters, or glogs. Glogster provides an environment to design interactive posters. The user inserts text, images, photos, audio (MP3), videos, special effects and other elements into their glogs to generate a multimedia online creation. Its free for individuals registrations.
However, there Glogster also provide services to teachers world wide to utilize extra function with fees that is reasonable and affordable. It is called Glogster Edu.

Here's an image of what u can do on Glogster.

Next let us move on to the 2nd application.

 Animoto is a web application that produces videos from photos, video clips and music. Using this online apps we can create interesting videos similar to a trailer according to our own creativity. It fun and simple to use. We can register for free and start getting our brains into gear to create awesome vids! 

Here's a screen capture of how u start to create ur vids  by choosing the image u gonna use.


That is it for last week's class. Comments and suggestions are loved. ^w^

Tuesday, 17 April 2012

3rd Note

Transmission Media & Network Electronic Devices

Now moving on with my notes for Lil' Mistress, we've reached the 3rd note.
As the tittle suggested, we'll be going over transmission media & network electronic devices. 
This will be a short post going over description and example. These topics are rather easy, even though the terms used are seemingly complicated.

Transmission media is the object used to transmit data. 

So it's simply a topic that tells us what device is used for the said purpose.


Twisted pair
The physical media have 2 types:-
  1. Bounded/guided *trough wiring
  •  twisted pair
  • coaxial
  • Fibre optic
  • fibre optic



  1. Unbounded/unguided *using wave length, radio signal, etc.
  •  satelite communication
  • microwave radio
  • infrared signals

 Okay, next we'll go trough what is Network electronic devices...

  • Devices that controls data transmission from
    sources to destinations
  • Act as interface between different
    transmission media or communication protocol
example of these devices are:-
  •  Hub 
  • Router
  • Switch
  • Bridge
  • Gateway

Well, that's all for the 3rd. The 4th note will be about  network software. So be sure to come over for a review again. ヽ(・∇・)ノ

Mr. Rabbit

Monday, 16 April 2012

2nd Note

Computer Networking!

Let's discuss what is network today!  (・∇・)

Simply put, a network a compilation of links. Maybe for some, computer network  = internet.

Even I thought the same thing before.
Actually computer network is  a collection of COMPUTERS and  other HARDWARE DEVICES that are CONNECTED together to share  hardware, software, and data as well as to communicate with one  another.

 For example a computer being connected to a printer, is also a  network.  

Now let me put some listing of 

Network Classification and Network components

Network Classification

  • LAN (Local Area Network)
  • PAN (Personal Area Networks)
  • WAN (Wide Area Network)
  • MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) 

 Network Components 
  1. Terminals, Workstations,
    Computers, and other devices
    (end nodes)
  2.  Transmission Media ( for
    transmitting data and control
  3.  Software to control data transmission
  4.  Network electronics ( intermediate devices
    for routing data from source)
  5. Network Architecture Standards
    (Standards to enable devices made by
    different companies to work/communicate
    with each other.

Saturday, 7 April 2012

Little Mistress

Le Chapitre Un

 Uwaah~ today is such a nice day to go and wonder around and play. After breakfast while wearing long flowy soft pink coloured silk night gown, I start rummaging my double-door Gothic style oak wardrobe that stood 2 meter high at the left corner of my room to find what to wear for the day. I wonder if I should wear black today? Hurm, let's see what do we have here. Yeah! this'll do. I skipped towards my mirror to check the black lace at the end of my long sleeved Gothic style dress and at the edge of its skirts. I'm too rough sometimes so I tend to ruin my dress without noticing.

 I saw Mr. Rabbit at the breakfast table just now. The Colorn brand's black cotton slim and fit suits, the white long-sleeve shirt point and a black slim tie really complements his look. Hurm.. did he grew a bit more since the last few month? He was 180cm the last time we measured our heights together. Seriously, stop growing already! I look fragile every time we walk together. That is why my dad worries about me too much! ¬_¬

I start walking out my bedroom only to be startled by Mr. Rabbit who was reading while leaning against the yellow wall of opposite of the front of my door waiting to accompany me for the day with his black Converse carry bag which have double strap handle, external zip compartment, and main compartment with zip. He closed his book and slip it into his bag with a smile. Then he listen quietly while laughing a bit as I whine about him being too quite sometimes as we made our way to the garden. In the garden...

At the garden, we sat on a mat laid out by Mr. Rabbit earlier and started my daily morning revision before my private tutor arrive at 10 o'clock. I opened up my note book and started reading...



"Hey Mr. Rabbit. I found these peculiar words today. I heard of 'em somewhere but I couldn't remember~" >w<


"Well, let's see what is written here in your notes. . "


Communication =  the exchange of thoughts, messages, ideas, or information by sign and sounds like speech signals, writing or behaviour 


"ops! guess I forgotten that it was there. hehe"


Wait! there's more! \0.0/

  "UUU~~ Pweetty flower!!"  (っˆヮˆ)っ


"Please focus now Little Mistress! This is your note on the elements of communication technology. I'll put a little bit more notes to assist you since you tend to forget things all to easily" =_=" 


*scribble, scribble.


'I know that already! you don't need to say it out loud!' I thought as I glare watch Mr. Rabbit scribbling down the note.


"Now, now, little mistress, don't be offended by my words. You're to cute when you're vexed. I couldn't help myself but to tease you a bit" Mr. Rabbit gently said whilst his eyes unmoving from writing the note.


"When was I vexed?! You clearly don't know me enough Mr. Rabbit!" I turned away, hoping to hide the tint of pink creeping up my face. Geez! Mr. Rabbit sure is one sweet-talker. 


"Alright, I'm done with the notes. Little Mistress what are you doing? Turn around now. I'm apologized if my words offended you little mistress. I'll make your favourite strawberry chocolate crepe after we finished with your revision ok.

"Yeay! ok then, let's finish up fast!" I chirped, exited for the treat after this. Mr. Rabbit makes the best crepe ever.



 Night came slowly after all my schedule for the day. I got ready for bed and started slipping into my comfortable outfit, I throw myself on the bed. Feeling the fluffy and soft cover. Sleepiness crept up on me not too long after and everything slips into darkness as I close my eyes, anticipating another day.